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Announcing Cloudflare R2 Storage: Rapid and Reliable Object Storage, minus the egress fees

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Announcing Cloudflare R2 Storage: Rapid and Reliable Object Storage, minus the egress fees
Announcing Cloudflare R2 Storage: Rapid and Reliable Object Storage, minus the egress fees

We’re excited to announce Cloudflare R2 Storage! By giving developers the ability to store large amounts of unstructured data, we’re expanding what’s possible with Cloudflare while slashing the egress bandwidth fees associated with typical cloud storage services to zero.

Cloudflare R2 Storage includes full S3 API compatibility, working with existing tools and applications as built.

Let’s get into the R2 details.

R2 means “Really Requestable”

Object Storage, sometimes referred to as blob storage, stores arbitrarily large, unstructured files. Object storage is well suited to storing everything from media files or log files to application-specific metadata, all retrievable with consistent latency, high durability, and limitless capacity.

The most familiar API for Object Storage, and the API R2 implements, is Amazon’s Simple Storage Service (S3). When S3 launched in 2006, cloud storage services were a godsend for developers. It didn’t happen overnight, but over the last fifteen years, developers have embraced cloud storage and its promise of infinite storage space.

As transformative as cloud storage has been, a downside emerged: actually getting your data back. Over time, companies have amassed massive amounts of data on cloud provider networks. When they go to retrieve that data, they’re hit with massive egress fees that don’t correspond to any customer value — just a tax developers have grown accustomed to paying.

Enter R2.

Announcing Cloudflare R2 Storage: Rapid and Reliable Object Storage, minus the egress fees

Traditional object storage charges developers for three things: bandwidth, storage size and storage operations.

R2 builds on Cloudflare’s commitment to the Bandwidth Alliance, providing zero-cost egress for stored objects — no matter your request rate.  Egress bandwidth is often the largest charge for developers utilizing object storage and is also the hardest charge to predict.  Eliminating it is a huge win for open-access to data stored in the cloud.

That doesn’t mean we are shifting bandwidth costs elsewhere. Cloudflare R2 will be priced at $0.015 per GB of data stored per month — significantly cheaper than major incumbent providers.

Infrequent access to objects is often trivial for providers to support yet incurs the same per-operation charges. We don’t think it’s fair that typical object storage bills a developer making one request a second the same rate as an enterprise making thousands of requests a second — or frequently a higher rate when considering negotiated volume discounts.

On the flip side, providers designed for infrequent access typically can’t scale to heavy usage.

R2 will zero-rate infrequent storage operations under a threshold — currently planned to be in the single digit requests per second range. Above this range, R2 will charge significantly less per-operation than the major providers. Our object storage will be extremely inexpensive for infrequent access and yet capable of and cheaper than major incumbent providers at scale.

This cheaper price doesn’t come with reduced scalability. Behind the scenes, R2 automatically and intelligently manages the tiering of data to drive both performance at peak load and low-cost for infrequently requested objects.  We’ve gotten rid of complex, manual tiering policies in favor of what developers have always wanted out of object storage: limitless scale at the lowest possible cost.

R2 means “Repositioning Records”

Zero egress means you can get objects out easily, but what about putting objects in? Migrating data across cloud providers, even if they both support the complete S3 API, is error-prone and costly.

To make this easy for you, without requiring you to change any of your tooling, Cloudflare R2 will include automatic migration from other S3-compatible cloud storage services. Migrations are designed to be dead simple. After specifying an existing storage bucket, R2 will serve requests for objects from the existing bucket, egressing the object only once before copying and serving from R2. Our easy-to-use migrator will reduce egress costs from the second you turn it on in the Cloudflare dashboard.

Announcing Cloudflare R2 Storage: Rapid and Reliable Object Storage, minus the egress fees

Our vision for R2 includes multi-region storage that automatically replicates objects to the locations they’re frequently requested from. As with Durable Objects, we plan on introducing jurisdictional restrictions that allow developers to comply with complex data sovereignty requirements via a simple API.

R2 means “Ridiculously Reliable”

The core of what makes Object Storage great is reliability — we designed R2 for data durability and resilience at its core. R2 will provide 99.999999999% (eleven 9’s) of annual durability, which describes the likelihood of data loss. If you store 1,000,000 objects on R2, you can expect to lose one once every 100,000 years — the same level of durability as other major providers. R2 will be resistant to regional failures, replicating objects multiple times for high availability.

R2 is designed with redundancy across a large number of regions for reliability. We plan on starting from automatic global distribution and adding back region-specific controls for when data has to be stored locally, as described above.

R2 means “Radically Reprogrammable”

R2 is fully integrated with the Cloudflare Workers serverless runtime. You can bind a Worker to a specific bucket, dynamically transforming objects as they are written to or read from storage buckets. The deep integration between Workers and R2 makes building data pipelines and manipulating objects incredibly easy.

Cloudflare R2 is designed to easily integrate with the rest of Cloudflare's products. As a few examples, our plan is to allow Durable Objects to be configured with R2 as a backup target, and provide automatic integration between R2 and Cloudflare cache to greatly extend cache lifetimes for infrequently changing objects.

What will you be able to build with Cloudflare R2?

There’s a lot you can do with long-term storage, especially with access to the Workers compute platform just alongside it.

For example, streaming data from a large number of IoT devices becomes a breeze with R2. Starting with a Worker to transform and manipulate the data, R2 can ingest large volumes of sensor data and store it at low cost. With no egress fees, it becomes simple to migrate volumes of data to multiple databases and analytics solutions as needed, dramatically reducing storage costs. With the ability to run a Worker on the outgoing data as well, the data pipeline itself is more flexible.

R2 is also a great place for CDN assets and large media files. For large files, R2 can significantly extend cache lifetimes while dramatically slashing egress bills. Combined with the Cache API and Workers, content can be dynamically cached for low-latency access around the globe.

More than anything, R2’s lack of egress bandwidth charges makes it ideal for storing content that’s accessed frequently. Today, R2 scales well to handle heavy request loads, dynamically tiering your objects to provide the best performance at the lowest cost. This dynamic tiering allows us to offer the lowest prices while supporting peak performance — with no user configuration required.

Accessing Cloudflare R2

R2 is currently under development — you can sign up here to join the waitlist for access. We’re excited to work with a number of earlier users to refine and test the product. We’ll be announcing an open beta where any user will be able to sign up for the service soon.

We’re excited to continue to build the product and push towards open beta, and we have big ideas for what the future of storage at Cloudflare’s edge could look like. If you’re a distributed systems engineer who wants to help us build the future of state at the edge, come work with us!

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elwillow
21 days ago
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Ottawa, Ontario
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Apple’s NeuralHash Algorithm Has Been Reverse-Engineered

4 Comments and 10 Shares

Apple’s NeuralHash algorithm — the one it’s using for client-side scanning on the iPhone — has been reverse-engineered.

Turns out it was already in iOS 14.3, and someone noticed:

Early tests show that it can tolerate image resizing and compression, but not cropping or rotations.

We also have the first collision: two images that hash to the same value.

The next step is to generate innocuous images that NeuralHash classifies as prohibited content.

This was a bad idea from the start, and Apple never seemed to consider the adversarial context of the system as a whole, and not just the cryptography...

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elwillow
61 days ago
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Ottawa, Ontario
popular
63 days ago
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4 public comments
guilhermea
63 days ago
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People knew it was bound to happen, but this early? Wow.
London, England
jgbishop
63 days ago
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Got to love when Apple blows it!
Durham, NC
freeAgent
63 days ago
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I wonder if we'll see people creating false positives in order to frame others OR in order to jam up Apple's system with lots of false positives. Or both. Probably both.
Los Angeles, CA
zippy72
61 days ago
I can think of at least two governments that are probably working on the former. There's a few hackers on Twitter who claim to be working on the latter.
MotherHydra
63 days ago
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Clearly something that while helpful on its face has immense (possibly impossible) technical hurdles to overcome lest innocent people get flagged.
Space City, USA

Self-love

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Self-love

A comic about loving yourself.

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elwillow
75 days ago
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Ottawa, Ontario
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Why it breaks your brain to take a compliment

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Why it breaks your brain to take a compliment

The science and psychology of why taking compliments is so hard.

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elwillow
78 days ago
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Ottawa, Ontario
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Mine Captcha

3 Comments and 8 Shares
This data is actually going into improving our self-driving car project, so hurry up--it's almost at the minefield.
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elwillow
81 days ago
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Ottawa, Ontario
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3 public comments
llucax
82 days ago
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💣
Berlin
DexX
82 days ago
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I am offended that this is two correct solutions, and I am 99% certain Randall did that on purpose as an extra level on the joke.
Melbourne, Australia
Rendin
82 days ago
Are you sure that there are two? I would love that being part of the joke but I see only one valid solution.
aeonsablaze
82 days ago
Pretty sure there is only one.
flensrocker
82 days ago
I only see: 2210, MM31, 3M3M, 1121
DexX
82 days ago
You're right - I got it wrong. :P
jlvanderzwan
82 days ago
Would have been amazing (in the "hilariously evil" sense) if you were right though
silberbaer
82 days ago
Yes, only one, but I'm glad I'm not the only person who felt compelled to solve it.
contraryian
82 days ago
I think 2210, MM31, 332M, M111 is also valid?
aeonsablaze
82 days ago
Nope, take a closer look at the 3 in the second row.
xlythe
82 days ago
I feel let down that you can't actually submit the solution :(
alt_text_bot
82 days ago
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This data is actually going into improving our self-driving car project, so hurry up--it's almost at the minefield.

You know that moment when you don't fully understand something?

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You know that moment when you don't fully understand something?

A comic about explaining things to other people.

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elwillow
101 days ago
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Ottawa, Ontario
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